Carrot, banana and lemon cake ~ Gluten free, Dairy free, Vegan

I need to make a cake, well no, actually, truth is, I need to use up a few ripe bananas!
I don’t have nuts and I fancy a change from the usual banana cake/bread/muffins recipes.
Muffins… that makes me remember making, (years ago) banana and carrot muffins.
However, I am trying to recall vaguely the proportions in order to make a suitable recipe whilst using up my bananas and other store cupboard ingredients without having to buy too many if any extra’s! I will add photographs once completed the process, hopefully it will be delicious! I know my eldest son, (who isn’t free from anything or vegan), will want a Philadelphia cream cheese, vanilla extract and icing sugar to make the icing! For those of us who wish for suitable healthier decorations then may I suggest one to suit your tastes. Please don’t be offended if it is not your choice):
Naked
Honey drizzle
Maple syrup drizzle
Butters – nut, dairy free, coconut oil
Alternative spreads
(This proves you shouldn’t multi-task or ‘burn the candle at both ends’ – “Eventually my neighbour was able to let in!” #Random ?)
Please adapt the recipe to suit you, as long as the basic elements are followed then you can’t really go wrong!
Ingredients:
• 3 tbsp.’s honey, raw maple, agave, or fruit syrup (honey)
• 3 tbsp.’s of mild olive oil
• 1 teaspoon vanilla extract/essence
• 3 mashed organic ripe bananas
• 1 large grated carrot
• 1 lemon freshly squeezed lemon juice and zest
• 3 tbsp.’s gluten free plain flour
•2 tsps baking powder
•½ tsp of baking soda
• 1 teaspoons xanthan gum
• a handful of either chopped dried apricots/dates/prunes
• a handful of chopped raw walnuts or pecans (optional) save some to decorate
Method:
Preheat oven to Gas mark 4, Electric 180 degrees Celsius.
Grease an line three sandwich cake tins 7″diameter.
Beat the syrup, oil, vanilla, and salt.
Add the bananas, carrot, lemon juice, and zest.
Mix with the flour, baking powder, and baking soda into the banana mixture.
Fold in the nuts and apricots.
Spoon into the tins, bake for about 20-25 min, or until cake skewer comes out clean.
Leave it cool, before removing from pan.
Decorate!

Tru3 J0y

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Ice cold Licorice tea

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Ingredients

•Water, 6 cups
•Licorice Root, 2½ tsp. (dried)
•Cinnamon Stick, 1
•Peppermint, ½ cup (dried)
•Honey, ½ cup

 

Method:

Take a large pot and pour water into it.

Keep the pot over high heat and bring the water to boil.

Then, add licorice and cinnamon to the boiling water, and lower the heat to simmer the liquid. Then cover the pot partially, with a plate, and simmer it for 10 more minutes.

Remove the pot from heat, and add peppermint to the liquid.

Cover the pot completely and let it steep for 10 minutes.

Now, strain the tea and add honey to it.

Let the tea cool completely, and then place the container to refrigerate.

Serve with ice cubes.

How to you flavour and sweetness to cooking while also using less sugar

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NHS guidelines, added sugars should not make up more than 10% of the energy or calorie intake you obtain from food and drink everyday. Which is approximately 70g for men and 50g for women.

Six types of sugar:

• Glucose: Simple sugar that can be carried in the blood. One half of sucrose or table sugar

• Fructose: Simple sugar that occurs naturally in fruit. The other half of sucrose

• Sucrose: Table sugar it is refined and occurs naturally in sugar cane or beets

• Lactose: Milk sugar, which makes up just less than 5% of cow’s milk

• Maltose: Two joined-up glucose molecules
• High fructose corn syrup: Where half of the syrup’s glucose has been converted into fructose. Chemically very similar to sucrose.

Coconut palm sugar is produced from the sap of the coconut palm’s flower buds, coconut palm sugar has a glycaemic index rating of 35; notably lower than refined sugar. Coconut palm sugar is therefore a perfect substitute in cooking as the affect on your blood sugars is less dangerous. Also, it is more nutritious containing; amino acids, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron and B vitamins. Conveniently it can be used in the same ration as refined table sugar in recipes.

Fruit contains a simple sugar called fructose along with fibre, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. Increase fibre intake, by replacing table sugar with chopped or pureed fruit to sweeten yoghurt, cakes like in a banana bread recipe or mashed bananas in flapjack instead of sugar and golden syrup, (the negative is a shorter shelf life) some food may be frozen. Fruit peel is also full of antioxidants and can be grated into smoothies or used to tenderise meat. Add chopped apples making muesli. Humans are not meant to consume as much sugar as we do only a limited amount in proportion to our calorie intake in a varied balanced diet, such as fructose which is naturally occurring sugar in fruit.
The NHS recommends eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day, each weighing 80g of different colours to benefit from the different vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.

Agave nectar is a sweetener from several species of the agave plant in Mexico consists of glucose and fructose. It is about 1.5 times sweeter than table sugar and has a similar consistency to honey.
It is used as an alternative to sugar as it has a much lower glycemic index than that of sucrose. It is used as a vegan alternative to honey as it is a plant.
The ratio of fructose to glucose is roughly 70% fructose to 30% glucose, whereas sucrose is 50% fructose to 50% glucose. However, there is no proof that refined agave syrups are healthier than refined sugar as they still contain the same number of calories per serving.

strong>Honey is a naturally sweet liquid (made from the nectar of flowers and collected by honey bees), 80% natural sugars, 18% water and 2% minerals, vitamins, pollen and protein. Fructose and glucose make up 70% of honey’s natural sugar content, the balance determines if honey is cloudy or clear. It is higher in nutrients than processed white sugar. A 100g of caster sugar provides 400kcals of energy, 100g of carbohydrates, equivalent amount of pure clear honey provides on average, 330kcals of energy, 81g of carbohydrate so they are relatively similar. It has benefits antibacterial properties also it has been used as a natural remedy for over 5000 years.
In cooking, replace sugar with honey, use it to add sweetness and flavour to food and drink. In baking cakes it attracts water so keeps cakes moist for longer.

Stevia is a natural sweetener made from the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), which is native to Paraguay, and mostly grown there and in Brazil.
Steviol glycosides are high intensity sweeteners, 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and comes in liquid or powder form.
It has no calories, contains no sugar or carbohydrates and boasts a glycemic index of 0, making it attractive to dieters.
Stevia comes from the stevia plant and has been added to Sprite lemonade by Coca-Cola to lower calories by 30%.
Previously, stevia was mainly known among industry insiders, but since knowledge has been shared it is now an attractive sweetener, as such there is an accelerated growth in use of the ingredient. There was a global increase in stevia used in food production. The EU passed a law, in 2011, allowing stevia to be used in food and drink.

Dextrose
is manufactured from corn, it is a form of glucose, a monosaccharide, which is a “simple” sugar. It is, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the traditional name in pharmacy for d‐glucose “the dextrorotatory component of invert sugar”. It can be bought in liquid or powder form, it is gaining in use as a sugar substitute as it is considered by some to be the “good” part of sugar, the glucose, for athletes or those who have been ill. Athletes may use powdered dextrose after exercise to boost energy levels in muscle – as it quickly raises blood glucose levels, as it has a high glycemic index rating of 100.
Other sweet foods can also quickly raise blood glucose levels, however, they can contain sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose. Fructose does not convert into glycogen in your muscles, which is why athletes prefer to use dextrose.

Xylitol originates from wood but is or was used in food and drinks as a sugar alternative? Personally, I find this concerning and as I suffer from food allergies/intolerances and IBS.
Xyl” is the Greek for wood.
Xylitol was first made from Finnish birch trees in the early 1900s.
However, it is also naturally produced by most living things including trees, fruits, plants, animals and even people, as xylitol being the alcohol form of xylose.
Xylitol is used as a sweetener, it has 40% fewer calories than sugar, 75% less carbohydrates, a low GI (of 7), and believed to inhibit the bacteria in the mouth that causes tooth decay but tastes similar to sugar. It is now used in mints, gum, children’s sweets, and certified by the British Dental Health Foundation.
There are many recipes out on how to cook with it to reduce sugar in the diet.
However, there are also concerns as it can affect people with intestinal or bowel problems.

Tru3 J0y

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Liquorice Glycyrrhiza glabra

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Licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a legume, which roots have a sweet flavour. The roots contain compounds, like anethole and glycyrrhizic acid, responsible for the sweetness and other properties of this herb. Licorice was used by the ancient Greeks and Egyptians for therapeutic purposes. This herb was used for treating stomach disorders as well as respiratory problems. It was very widely used in Asia and Europe too. Today, licorice is used as flavouring agent, herbal medicine, available as root extract, tablets, root tea, candies, etc. You may also come across tobacco products flavored with licorice. However, use of licorice in high doses, that too for a long term, may result in serious side effects.
Benefits
Licorice roots are otherwise known as sweet wood, sweet root, black sugar, and liquorice. The most common use of licorice root is for treating respiratory problems, like bronchitis and asthma. It is also widely used as an expectorant, and is an active ingredient in cough syrups. It is found to be effective for relieving the symptoms of allergic conditions, like hay fever and allergic rhinitis. Stomach ulcers are also treated with licorice. The herb is said to be beneficial for treating conditions, like Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ileitis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Licorice is used to cure sore throat, bloating and acidity, menstrual cramps, and symptoms of menopause. It is said that consumption of licorice boosts the immune system, thereby preventing viral infections; used for treating viral hepatitis and genital herpes. It is also suggested that licorice can lower LDL cholesterol and prevent arteriosclerosis. This herb is also used for treating skin conditions, like eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis.
Side Effects
As like many other herbs, excess use of licorice may cause certain side effects associated with factors, like excess consumption, interaction with other drugs, and the physical condition of the user. In case of licorice, studies suggest that the presence of glycyrrhizic acid is the reason behind such side effects.
There are two types of licorice products – one with glycyrrhizic acid and the other without that compound. The most common side effects of licorice roots include headache, breathing difficulty, water retention, stomach ache, and joint stiffness. Long-term use of this herb has been linked to problems, like high blood pressure, edema, liver problems, kidney diseases, and pseudoaldosteronism. Excess use of licorice with glycyrrhizic acid may result in muscle weakness, chronic fatigue, headaches, inflammation, and low testosterone levels in men.
It has been observed that most of the side effects are caused by high doses. Licorice roots should not be taken by people with high blood pressure, diabetes, cirrhosis, kidney problems, heart diseases, low blood potassium levels, estrogen-sensitive disorders, etc. Pregnant and nursing women and small kids should also avoid use of this herb. It is better to avoid licorice, if you are taking diuretics or heart medication. In case, you wish to use this herb for medicinal purposes, consult a qualified herbal practitioner and follow his instructions.
The root of a plant named Glycyrrhiza glabra more commonly known as Liquorice. The sweet extract obtained from this root is also referred to as licorice, a confectionery extracted from the roots of this plant. This confectionery is used for preparing various sweets like chocolates and candies. Following are some recipes:

Licorice Tea

Ingredients •Water, 6 cups
•Licorice Root, 2½ tsp. (dried)
•Cinnamon Stick, 1
•Peppermint, ½ cup (dried)
•Honey, ½ cup
Procedure

Take a large pot and pour water into it. Keep the pot over high heat and bring the water to boil. Then, add licorice and cinnamon to the boiling water, and lower the heat to simmer the liquid. Then cover the pot partially, with a plate, and simmer it for 10 more minutes. Remove the pot from heat, and add peppermint to the liquid. Cover the pot completely and let it steep for 10 minutes. Now, strain the tea and add honey to it. Let the tea cool completely, and then place the container to refrigerate. Serve with ice cubes.

Tru3 J0y
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Cake for one!

A really easy cake for one, despite being sacrilege if microwaved, although it can be baked in the oven.

Ingredients:
3 tbsp flour either white or 1 tbsp Gluten free plain flour or ground almonds
1/4 tsp baking powder
Pinch of salt
1 tbsp Demerara or golden granulated sugar
1 tablespoon water
2 tsp water
2 tsp of either oil, melted margarine or applesauce
1/4 tsp pure vanilla extract

Choose a variation of your choice:

Cinnamon and pecan:
A pinch of cinnamon (choose to suit your taste)
2 pecan halves
1 heaped tsp Demerara or golden granulated sugar
1/2 tsp of either oil, melted margarine, mashed banana or applesauce the latter two for a fat-free version if desired
tiny pinch salt

Coffee and Walnut:
1/2 tsp of dissolved expresso or strong coffee solution
2 walnut halves
1 heaped tsp Demerara or golden granulated sugar
1/2 tsp of either oil, melted margarine, mashed banana or applesauce/pureed apple the latter two for a fat-free version if desired
tiny pinch salt

Chocolate:
1/4 tsp cocoa
3 crushed hazelnuts
1 heaped tsp Demerara or golden granulated sugar
1/2 tsp of either oil, melted margarine, mashed banana or applesauce the latter two for a fat-free version if desired
tiny pinch salt

Cherry and Macadamia
1-2 chopped cherries
2 crushed Macadamias
1 heaped tsp Demerara or golden granulated sugar
1/2 tsp of either oil, melted margarine, mashed banana or applesauce the latter two for a fat-free version if desired
tiny pinch salt

Method:
Preheat to 330 F.
Combine batter dry ingredients and mix well.
Add wet and mix until just mixed. In a tiny bowl, combine all
filling ingredients.
Fill a greased muffin tin or a ramekin or mug, if using the microwave 1/2 way with the batter.
Sprinkle on two-thirds of the filling, then spoon the remaining batter on top.
Finally, sprinkle on the rest of the filling.

Cook 12-13 minutes in the oven, or approximately 1 minute in a microwave.

N.B. Microwave times may vary depending on the wattage power of the microwave.

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Tru3 J0y
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Gluten and Dairy free Scrummy Banana cake

500 grams Caster sugar
400 grams Dairy free butter or oil
2 eggs
1 teaspoon Vanilla essence/extract
800 grams of Gluten free Self-raising flour
800 grams ripe mashed Banana’s

Equipment: electric whisk or wooden spoon, kitchen measuring scales, teaspoon, knife, mixing bowl, spatula, 8″ diameter deep round or square cake tin greased and lined with greaseproof paper.

Method

  1. Set oven at 180 or Gas mark 4.
  2. Put the butter and sugar in the bowl whisk with the electric mixer or by hand with a wooden spoon.
  3. Add vanilla essence and mashed banana’s whisk well.
  4. Gradually fold in the flour gently mixing it carefully into the mixture.
  5. Spoon into the prepared greased cake tin smooth the top.
  6. Bake for 60 minutes at Gas mark 4 or 180.

Could your symptoms mean you’re an undiagnosed coeliac?

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Coeliac disease symptoms vary among people as a result the symptoms can range from very mild to severe. The reactions are different from an allergic reaction as symptoms do not cause anaphylactic shock. Coeliac disease is a ‘multi-system’ disorder for the reason that symptoms may affect any area of the body.

Symptoms

Symptoms of eating gluten differ among individuals which can last from a few hours to a few days whilst eating gluten so less gluten makes your symptoms vary in severity:

• Headaches,
• Diarrhoea,
• Stomach pains, cramps, bloatedness,
• Lethargy,
• Severe or occasional diarrhoea, excessive wind and/or constipation,
• Persistent or unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting,
• Recurrent stomach pain, cramping or bloating,
• Deficiency of one or a combination of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid,
• Anaemia,
• Tiredness and/or headaches,
• Unexpected or rapid weight loss,
• Mouth ulcers,
• Alopecia (hair loss),
• Dermatitis herpetiformis (skin rash)
• Tooth enamel problems,
• Depression,
• Infertility,
• Liver abnormalities,
• Repeated miscarriages,
• Joint pain and/or bone pain,
• Neurological; nerve; ataxia which is poor muscle coordination; neuropathy numbness and tingling in the hands and feet,
• Amenorrhea which is a lack of periods in women,
• Symptoms in young children and babies may differ and require close monitoring to refer to a GP.

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Golden syrup, vanilla, oat, banana cake

Ingredients
200 grams butter or margarine for lactose intolerant use dairy free spread
200 grams sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 Tablespoon Lyles Golden syrup
1 teaspoon cinnamon
4 medium eggs
2 ripe bananas
100 grams porridge oats for gluten intolerance or coeliac use certified coeliac oats or free from oats
100 grams self raising flour for coeliacs or gluten intolerance use Gluten free flour

Method
1, Preheat oven 190 or Gas 5.
Muffin tins put paper cases in bake for 20 minutes alternatively line a baking tray but bake for 40 minutes.

2, Cream the butter/margarine and sugar together, using a wooden spoon or electric whisk.

3, Add syrup, vanilla extract, eggs and cinnamon and mix well.

4, Add oats either blend in a food mixture or using electric whisk to blend down as whisked for a couple of minutes.

5, Add banana, if mixing by hand then mash first, if not add and use electric whisk to blend until the mixture is smooth.

6, Add flour, mix gradually with a large spoon until folded. Using a spoon, spoon the mixture into the cases half filling once each tray is complete place in oven, set timer.

7, Check after 20 minutes for muffins or 40 for a larger cake, prick centre with a cake skewer or similar.

8, Once cooked remove from oven place on a cooling rack to cool.

9, Buttercream or Cream cheese Icing can be added or a simply a sprinkling of cinnamon and sugar shaken over the top for added taste and texture.

Tru3 J0y
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Food intolerances, food allergy or adverse food reactions

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Food allergy” is sometimes used to describe all adverse reactions to food, the term is more often used to refer specifically to food reactions that are mediated by the immune system.
To protect us from illness and disease, our immune systems protect us from illnesses and diseases so are continuously trying to lessen the danger represented by substances called antigens. Antigens are parts of proteins that our bodies recognize as dangerous and take steps to neutralize. Antigens can be found most anywhere there is protein – in foods, of course, but also in microorganisms like bacteria.
When our immune cells identify a dangerous antigen, they act to neutralize it and prevent it from causing harm in the body. When antigens from bacteria or viruses interact with our cells, we can get the flu, or the common cold. We don’t get the flu from food antigens, but we can get a wide range of immune-related symptoms that range from sniffles to hives to anaphylactic shock.

Immediate versus Delayed Hypersensitivity
Allergic reactions to food, also called food hypersensitivities, are further classified as either immediate or delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions occur within hours or even a few minutes after a food is eaten, typically causing very obvious physical symptoms such as a rash, the hives, a running nose, or a headache.
In rare cases, immediate hypersensitivity reactions can cause anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening condition in which the throat swells and blocks the passage of air. Immediate hypersensitivities affect only a small percentage of the population.

Immediate Reactions to Food
The foods that are most often implicated as the cause of immediate allergic responses include milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts (walnuts), soy, strawberries, wheat, fish and shellfish. Many people with immediate food hypersensitivities must completely eliminate the offending food from their diet to avoid the serious symptoms.

Delayed Reactions to Food
Many of the same foods that are known to cause immediate hypersensitivities in a small number of people, have been implicated as a cause of delayed or “masked” food allergies in much larger numbers of individuals. Delayed food hypersensitivity reactions are believed to affect millions of people; some physicians have suggested that as many as 60% of all Americans suffer from masked food allergies.
These reactions may be responsible for a variety of symptoms including dark circles or puffiness under the eyes, fluid retention, dermatitis, sinus congestion, fatigue, abdominal pain or discomfort, joint inflammation, mood swings, indigestion, headaches, chronic ear infections, asthma, poor memory, anxiety and depression.
As the name suggests, delayed hypersensitivities do not appear immediately after consuming a particular food. In fact, in most cases the immune response is so delayed that it is difficult to determine which food is causing the symptoms, and many people are unaware that they are sensitive to certain foods.
Only through careful dietary manipulation, such as an Elimination Diet or Rotation Diet, is it usually possible to identify these hidden food allergies. The foods most often associated with delayed hypersensitivities include dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy products, peanuts, shellfish, and refined sugar.

Food Intolerance are immune-mediated food allergies represent one type of adverse food reaction. Another type of adverse food reaction is called food intolerance. Food intolerance is an umbrella term that refers to any abnormal physiological response to a food that is not caused by an antibody/antigen reaction. For example, some food intolerances are caused by enzyme deficiencies, while others are caused by poor function of the digestive tract or a sensitivity to a natural or synthetic chemical.

Lactose Intolerance is the most common food intolerance, which affects as many as 30% of adults, additionally it is particularly common in people of African and Asian heritage.
People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough of the digestive enzyme called lactase, which breaks down the milk sugar (lactose) found in dairy products. When too much undigested lactose makes its way into the large intestine, people suffer from gas and/or diarrhea.

Wheat intolerance, wheat allergy, and wheat sensitivity are all terms frequently used to described adverse reaction to this food. Wheat is somewhat unique when it comes to adverse food reactions, particularly because it has long been classified as the primary “gluten grain” and because its research history has been both complicated and controversial. Understanding allergy-related issues associated with gluten is important for understanding problems connected to wheat.

Adverse food reactions, food allergies or food intolerances

Hippocrates dating back to 400 BC discussed food reactions in the development of various health complaints, it seems ridiculous that formal research studies on adverse food reactions only began in the 20th Century have only recently appeared in scientific journals.

These are a variety of food complaints which more and more people are being affected by, especially in the Western diet. It could be the increased amount of processed food which we eat and lack of natural fruit and vegetables. However, the adverse food reactions, food allergies and food intolerances now affect millions of people; some of whom have been seen by medical professionals, others through their own knowledge of their body and reactions to foods.

These adverse food reactions are believed to be the cause of a variety of common health complaints and diseases are not solely cereals, dairy, carbohydrates but also meats, fruits and vegetables as well as spices, additives, flavourings, sugar, fats, anti-biotics given to livestock etc.

Which are increasingly believed to be responsible for many undiagnosed health complaints which impact treatment and health problems which are mediated by the immune system.

The immune system protects us from illness and disease, by continuously lowering the danger represented by Antigens; parts of proteins which our bodies recognise as dangerous so neutralize it (in a nutshell our immune system is our internal army), in foods and microorganisms like bacteria.
The immune cells identifies a dangerous antigen, they act to neutralize it and prevent it from causing harm in the body. Antigens from bacteria or viruses interact with our cells, which is how we become sick, catch the flu, cold but in food antigens we may risk the attack of a wide range of immune-related symptoms ranging from a runny nose to hives or (worse still), anaphylactic shock.

Consequently, more and more healthcare practitioners are referring patients to dieticians and Allergy Avoidance Diets to identify food allergies and food intolerances in their patients to increase better health and future problems.

The difficulty is that your General Practitioner (G.P) Doctor may not have the knowledge or understanding to deal with your problem and refer you to a Consultant at your local hospital or to a dietician to discuss how to manage your body’s reactions to foods.

There are more and more nutritionists, dieticians and physicians who now consider that the only definitive way to identify and manage adverse food reactions is through an Allergy Avoidance Diet to eliminate and find the cause of the problem through one of the following diets:
~ Elimination Diet followed by food challenges Diet; any food that is suspected of causing an allergy or intolerance is eliminated for a period of four days to three weeks, until symptoms are gone. Therefore, depending on the severity and type of symptoms, the Elimination Diet could range from moderately to severely restrictive in the amount of foods allowed. Elimination Diets typically include a variety of hypoallergenic foods including lamb, pears, apples, rice, most vegetables, most beans and legumes (except peanuts) and the “non-gluten” grains (for example, millet, quinoa, and amaranth). Once the body has adjusted to the absence of suspected foods, these foods are systematically added back into the diet, and any resulting symptoms are recorded every two to four days depending on whether there is a reaction or not.
~ Rotation Diet, in this diet problematic foods are eaten only once every four days.

An Allergy Avoidance Diet may be especially beneficial for those suffering from adverse food reactions.


Food hypersensitivities or food reactions, are classified in two types; immediate or delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions occur within hours or even a few minutes after a food is eaten, typically causing very obvious physical symptoms such as a rash, the hives, a running nose, or a headache or rarely anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening condition in which the throat swells and blocks the passage of air. The foods which are most often the cause of immediate allergic responses include milk, eggs, peanuts, walnuts, soy, strawberries, wheat, fish and shellfish. Many people with immediate food hypersensitivities must completely eliminate the offending food from their diet to avoid the serious symptoms. It may also be similar citrus fruits or apples which cause these symptoms it varies among different individuals.
N.B. Immediate hypersensitivities affect only a small percentage of the population.

Foods known to cause immediate hypersensitivities in a small number of people, have now been implicated as a cause of delayed/masked food allergies in much larger numbers of individuals. Delayed food hypersensitivity reactions are believed to affect millions of people; some physicians have suggested that as many as 50% oa a western population suffer from masked food allergies.

Reactions may be a variety of symptoms; dark circles or puffiness under the eyes, fluid retention, dermatitis, sinus congestion, fatigue, abdominal pain or discomfort, joint inflammation, mood swings, indigestion, migraines, headaches, chronic ear infections, asthma, poor memory, anxiety and depression.

Delayed hypersensitivities do not appear immediately which adds to the problem after consuming a particular food as you may be unsure what you have eaten which caused the reaction possibly blaming the wrong food so suffering again until the correct food is eliminated. The immune response is often considerably delayed making it is difficult to determine which food is causing the symptoms, as a result many people continue unawares of their sensitivity to certain foods. This is why through dietary manipulation as in the Elimination Diet or Rotation Diet, so hidden food allergies are identified. The foods most commonly associated with delayed hypersensitivities include dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy products, peanuts, shellfish, and refined sugar.

Immune-mediated food allergies represent one type of adverse food reaction. Another type of adverse food reaction is called food intolerance which refers to any abnormal physiological response to a food that is not caused by an antibody/antigen reaction whether caused by enzyme deficiencies, or caused by poor function of the digestive tract or a sensitivity whether a natural or synthetic chemical.
The most common food intolerance is lactose intolerance, which affects as many as 30% of American adults, and is particularly common in people of African and Asian heritage.

People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough of the digestive enzyme called lactase, this breaks down the milk sugar (lactose) found in dairy products. The problem is when too much undigested lactose makes its way into the large intestine, people suffer from gas and/or diarrhoea.

Wheat reactions may be known as wheat intolerance, wheat allergy, and wheat sensitivity. Wheat is quite unique in adverse food reactions, for the reason that it has long been classified as the primary “gluten grain” as well as its research history which has been both complicated and controversial. It is necessary in understanding allergy-related issues associated with gluten is important for understanding problems connected to wheat.

“Gluten” is unscientific in its use; if that word is being used to describe any single substance or even category of substances. The term “gluten” used is from the world of industry not science. In industrial baked goods, gluten is the gummy, yellow-gray material that is left over after dough (made from flour and water) has been washed or carbohydrates cooked. This is as the dough is washed, many of the water-soluble substances and starches are washed off and what’s left is a complicated mixture that has traditionally been referred to gluten. The dough used to produce gluten is from many cereal grains including wheat such as rye, barley, which can also be used to produce gluten. In industrial practices, wheat is the common food source for producing gluten.
If a gluten dough-ball is dried out and analyzed, it is found to be 80% protein by weight, the remaining 20% is made up of fats, carbohydrates, and minerals. From a chemical point of view, gluten is a diverse mixture of substances.

Gluten Proteins
There are 4 primary types of gluten proteins:
(1) albumins,
(2) globulins,
(3) prolamins,
(4) glutelins.

Glutelins have a more specific name when they are found in wheat where they are called glutenins. The prolamin proteins in gluten have been implicated in the process of protein-based wheat allergy. The role of prolamin protein in food allergy is also complicated because prolamins are found in all cereal grains, not just wheat. The prolamin proteins found in wheat are the gliadin proteins; in oats, they are avenins; in corn they are zeins; in rye they are secalins; and in barley they are hordeins.

Protein-Based Wheat Allergy
With respect to wheat, and within the prolamin family of proteins found in gluten, it is the alpha-gliadin polypeptides that have been most closely linked to food allergy. These alpha-gliadin polypeptides include peptide A, peptide B, and peptide C. These small proteins appear particular to wheat. If gluten is produced from sources other than wheat, the prolamin proteins in the gluten change from gliadins to other types of prolamin proteins, like avenins in oats or secalins in rye. In these non-wheat cases, the allergy-triggered events associated with the prolamin proteins become less predictable, and sometimes fail to occur altogether.

“Gluten Grains”
The differences in prolamin protein composition between wheat and other cereal grains have prompted controversy in the area of allergy and in use of the term “gluten grains.” Traditionally, wheat, oats, barley, and rye have been referred to as the “gluten grains” and placed on a par with wheat in terms of allergy. When a person has traditionally been advised to avoid wheat products for allergy reasons, that person has also traditionally been advised to avoid oats, barley, and rye as well. The recommendation in this traditional context has been to avoid all “gluten grains.” The differences in protein chemistry between wheat and all other cereal grains, however, has caused some organizations to start thinking about wheat as a grain that falls into its own unique category and to place restrictions only on wheat and wheat gluten when allergy is the issue. These organizations have largely abandoned use the term “gluten grains,” and have begun to think exclusively about wheat and wheat gluten. These steps have had interesting and controversial consequences with respect to health problems involving wheat allergy. For example, several organizations formed to support individuals with celiac disease have altered their public health recommendations to include acceptability of oats for persons diagnosed with celiac disease. Previously, oats had been categorically avoided as gluten grains for all persons following dietary restrictions related to the diagnosis of celiac disease.

Non-Gluten Sources of Wheat Allergy
There are other components of wheat that have been associated with allergy to the wheat allergy problems associated with wheat’s prolamin proteins. These components include wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a glycoprotein, and two very short amino acid strings called tetrapeptides (PSSG and GGGP). These substances are present in significant amounts in wheat but do not appear to be present in the same way in other grains.

Whole Grains versus Processed Grains
Wheat allergy-related problems are believed to be triggered in part by the highly processed nature of wheat products in the marketplace. Commercially produced breads are typically formulated to contain a specific amount of highly processed wheat flour (stripped of the germ, the bran, and majority of fibers, vitamins, and minerals) and a specific amount of equally processed wheat gluten. Manipulation of this flour-to-gluten ratio can dramatically improve textures of highly processed breads and baked goods as a result the natural balance of nutrients found in whole wheat is dramatically altered by these processing events, which points to these processing impacts as the major underlying reason for prevalence of wheat allergy. 100% whole grains are the only grains recommended among the World’s Healthiest Foods, these allergy-related considerations involving wheat processing are completely avoided with the World’s Healthiest Foods approach.

The Specifics of Coeliac Disease
Coeliac disease is a health condition that some people associate with simple gluten intolerance. However, coeliac disease is in fact a multi-system autoimmune disease in which changes in liver function, digestive tract function, and the function of other organ systems comes into play. The role of a specific enzyme, called tissue transglutaminase, or tTG, appears to be especially important in celiac disease. Short strands of protein (polypeptides) found in gliadin (one family of wheat proteins) are acted on by this enzyme, and many resulting problems associated with Coeliac disease may result. For some, but not all individuals, a blood test measuring antibodies to tTG can be an effective screening test for Coeliac disease.

Adverse Reaction to Food Additives
Many people are also unable to “tolerate” natural and synthetic chemicals, such as sulfites, that appear in abundance in our food supply. These sulfur-containing preservatives are used in dried fruits, wines, and many other processed foods. Between 1980 and 1999, the United States Food and Drug Administration received more than 1,000 reports of adverse reactions, some fatal, to sulfites. It has been estimated that at least 1% of all people with asthma are sensitive to sulfites.
Synthetic food colourings, including Food Dye and Color Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine), are problematic for many people. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one further example of an additive used to increase flavor, particularly in Asian foods. After eating at restaurants that use MSG, many people become bloated or experience severe headaches.

Adverse Reaction to Salicylates
Salicylates and amines are examples of naturally-occurring food substances found in many vegetables, herbs, spices, fruits, and chocolate. These naturally-occurring components of food have been associated with a variety of symptoms including mental confusion, depression, and migraine headaches.

The Role of an Elimination Diet
Food allergies and food intolerances are a major source of undesirable symptoms that negatively impact the quality of life of many people. Therefore, the only definitive way to identify and manage adverse food reactions is through the use of an Elimination Diet followed by carefully organized food challenges.
This process is quite arduous and must be done carefully if adverse food reactions are to be identified, as a result, it is best to perform an Elimination Diet with the support of a knowledgeable health practitioner, however it can be done on your own if like me you are determined.
In an Elimination Diet, any food that is suspected to cause an allergy or intolerance is eliminated. Depending on the severity and type of symptoms, the Elimination Diet may range from moderately restrictive to severely restrictive in the amount of foods allowed.

Food Excluded on an Elimination Diet
Standard elimination diets eliminate the most common allergens, such as wheat, soy, corn, dairy, eggs, gluten, nuts, citrus, fish, chocolate, and shellfish, caffeine, alcohol, and artificial food additives. More restrictive Elimination Diets remove all of the foods previously listed plus those foods that contain salicylates and amines.

The Challenge Phase of an Elimination Diet
The purpose of the Elimination Diet is to avoid all problematic foods for a minimum of four days, or until you experience some relief from your symptoms. It is worth noting that for some people, it takes up to three weeks before improvement is seen. However, once the body is cleansed, the foods that were eliminated are systematically added back into the diet, one food at a time; being noted in a diary.
This re-addition of foods is called the “challenge” phase of the diet. On the first day of food challenges, a food is eaten one to three times during the day. Over the next few days, the dieter returns to the Elimination Diet, and watches for the return of any symptoms.
If any symptoms develop, it is possible that the dieter is “allergic” to the recently reintroduced food. If no symptoms develop, it is likely that the reintroduced food is not a problem for the dieter, and he/she can move on to the next food challenge. To more accurately determine food allergies and food intolerances, it is extremely helpful during the challenge phase to keep a diary of foods eaten and any emotional, mental or physical reactions.
It can take several months to complete an Elimination and Challenge Diet. If a person does not have the time or desire to undertake such a process, a Rotation Diet may be a more appropriate option for managing the symptoms associated with food allergies.
In a Rotation Diet, foods are rotated so that a person eats a food (or food family) only once every four days. For example, if you suspect a sensitivity to wheat, you would rotate wheat-containing foods into your diet every fourth day. It is believed that by decreasing the consumption of problematic foods by rotating them, the symptoms associated with these foods can be reduced.

Research
Thankfully there is an increasing body of scientific literature points to hidden food allergies and food intolerances as a cause of many medical conditions including migraine headache, arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and recurrent otitis media. Common health complaints such as fatigue and eczema are also attributed to adverse food reactions.
I am glad as being a sufferer who hasn’t been taken seriously by health professionals then the more research then maybe sufferers may be taken seriously rather than hypochondriacs or psychosomatic.

Clinicians and researchers believe that the number of people suffering from adverse food reactions is constantly increasing. They cite several reasons for this:

Repeated consumption of a limited number of foods: Eating a relatively small number of foods several times during the day; such as wheat, a common food allergen, which is found in breakfast cereals, the bread used to make a sandwich at lunch time, and the spaghetti eaten at dinner time. Also, wheat is a thickening agent used in food processing, so it is a common “hidden” ingredient in many processed foods. Or consider the number of times you can eat corn in one day: in your corn flakes at breakfast, in your corn tortilla at lunchtime, and your corn-on-the-cob at dinnertime. Other commonly eaten foods such as milk and eggs are also a frequent cause of allergic symptoms. The repeated exposure to these foods taxes the immune system.

Improper digestion and poor integrity of the intestinal barrier: The digestive tract plays a vital role in preventing illness and disease by providing an impenetrable barrier. When the integrity of the intestinal barrier is compromised, a condition coined “leaky gut syndrome” develops. With leaky gut syndrome, partially digested dietary protein can cross the intestinal barrier and be absorbed into the bloodstream. These large molecules can cause an allergic response, producing symptoms directly in the intestines or throughout the body.
One of the causes of leaky gut is an absence of “friendly” bacteria in the intestines. The “friendly” bacteria help maintain the health of the intestines by producing fuel (as short-chain fatty acids) for intestinal cells and by competing with disease-causing bacteria for nutrients. Parasitic infections, treatment with antibiotics, stress, and candida overgrowth can disrupt the proper balance of “friendly” bacteria. It is also believed that not being breastfed or only for a short period of time as an infant or an early introduction of solid foods to infants contributes to leaky gut syndrome and subsequent food allergies.

Over-worked immune systems: Constant stress, exposure to air and water pollution, and pesticides and chemicals in our food puts a strain on our immune system, making it less able to respond appropriately to the antigens in food.

Genetics: Food allergies and intolerances seem to be hereditary. Research indicates that if both parents have allergies, their children have a sixty-seven percent chance of developing food allergies. When only one parent is allergic, the child has a 33% chance of developing food allergies.

Foods Emphasized
An Allergy Avoidance Diet emphasizes the consumption of a wide-range of so-called hypoallergenic foods.
These foods include lamb, pears, apples, rice, most vegetables, most beans and legumes (except peanuts) and the non-gluten grains (for example, millet, quinoa, and amaranth).
The only sweeteners allowed are maple syrup or brown rice syrup.
Drinks include rice milk, pear nectar, chamomile tea, and sparkling water -without any added sweeteners.
Foods that are included in an Allergy Avoidance Diet must be carefully selected for each individual, so that all problematic foods are eliminated.

Foods Avoided
Any food that is known, or suspected, to cause an adverse reaction is either completely eliminated from the diet, or eaten on a rotation basis. Wheat, corn, cow’s milk, eggs, dairy products, peanuts, and soy foods are among the most common food allergens. Many people also react to artificial food additives, such as monosodium glutamate, sulfites, and food colorings; foods containing these ingredients must be eliminated.

If you are simply trying to avoid wheat, dairy, or corn, you can include a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in your Allergy Avoidance Diet. However, if you suspect that you are sensitive to amines and/or salicylates, you must avoid all foods containing these naturally occurring chemicals. Unfortunately these chemicals are widespred in many commonly eaten fruits and vegetables, as well as many other foods. Examples of foods that contain salicylates and/are amines are tomatoes, broccoli, olives, spinach, mushrooms, avocado, all dried fruit, smoked meats, canned fish, hard cheeses, soy sauce, miso, chocolate, cocoa, beer, cola drinks, vinegars, and yeast extract.

N.B. With the Elimination or Rotation diet, be aware that many processed foods contain at least one of the most common food allergens. Milk, soy, wheat, peanuts, and eggs are staples in the food industry, and often appear in foods as “natural flavors,” which means that the food label may not list the ingredient.

Additional Information about Allergy-Related Meal Planning
If you decide to experiment with some of the allergy avoidance methods listed above, you will discover that some allergy-related meal planning is really quite simple. If you decide, for example, that wheat is a food you want to avoid, you automatically know that wheat bread is off your grocery list.

Highly processed foods, or sauces and condiments, you will find that allergy avoidance becomes more difficult, because wheat is not always so easy to spot. Soy sauce, for example, often contains wheat as a key ingredient. So do teriyaki sauce and food starch.
Prepare homemade meals to avoid the risk of hidden ingredients.

Allergy-related meal planning in any of the following five areas, when selecting foods for yourself or your family.
1. Dairy-free meal planning
2. Wheat-free meal planning
3. Egg-free meal planning
4. Soy-free meal planning
5. Yeast-free meal planning

Dairy-free meal planning
In addition to cow’s milk itself, products made from cow’s milk including yogurt, ice cream, sour cream, half and half, cottage cheese, hard and soft cheeses, butter, and puddings can be made from cow’s milk.
One of the most common allergenic proteins in cow’s milk is called casein, and all variations of this word appearing on an ingredient list signify the presence of cow’s milk as a food source: casein, caseinate, calcium caseinate, ammonia caseinate, magnesium caseinate, potassium caseinate, and sodium caseinate.
Casein can be used in food processing as an extender, tenderizer, and protein fortifier, and can be found in unexpected places, including chewing gum, luncheon meats, and imitation sausage. The words “non-dairy” do not necessarily mean that a product does not contain casein, and many non-dairy products on the market, including soy cheeses, almond cheeses, and rice cheeses use casein as a primary protein-boosting ingredient.

Wheat-free meal planning
All of wheat’s components, including wheat bran, wheat germ, wheat starch, wheat nuts, and wheat berries would be excluded from a wheat-free meal plan. Similarly, any type of wheat, including bulgar, durum, and graham would be excluded. Semolina, seitan, triticale, couscous, and tabouleh would also be avoided, along with any product containing the word “gluten” (or a variation of this word) in its ingredient list. These include high-gluten flour, vital gluten, and wheat gluten.
Much more hidden are the food additives that may or may not be made from wheat. These additives include:

• Dextrin, an incompletely hydrolyzed starch that may be derived from the dry heating of corn, potato, rice, tapioca, arrowroot, or wheat
• Caramel color, which can be made from heat treatment of many food-grade carbohydrates, including molasses, corn sugar, invert sugar, milk sugar, barley malt syrup, or wheat starch hydrolysates
• Extracts, including vanillin extract, which often use grain alcohol in preparation of the extract and contain wheat protein residues

Egg-free meal planning
The desert sections of the grocery store contain the most egg-based products, including puddings, custards, ice creams, cakes, cookies, meringues, cream-filled or fondant-filled chocolates, fudge, icings and frostings, doughnuts, and muffins.
Baked goods and baking mixes also frequently contain egg. The list here includes waffles and waffle mixes, pancakes and pancake mixes, and french toast. Egg noodles, breaded meats, breaded fish, breaded poultry, souffles, hollandaise sauce, most mayonnaise, meat loaf, some sausages, many fried rice dishes, egg drop soups, egg noodle-containing soups, and egg substitutes can also contain egg.
On an ingredient list, any of the following words would also indicate the presence of egg: albumin, egg white, egg yolk, dried egg, egg powder, egg solids, ovalbumin, ovomucin, ovomucoid, ovovitellin, and livetin. The fat substitute Simplesse (TM) also contains microparticulated egg protein.

Soy-free meal planning
An ever-increasing number of ingredient-listed items can include some soybean-derived component. Items that indicate or may indicate the presence of soy include: hydrolyzed soy protein, hydrolyzed plant protein, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), isolated soy protein (ISP), soy flour, soy grits, soy nuts, soy milk, soy sprouts, isolated vegetable protein, vegetable gum, vegetable broth, or natural flavoring. Soy sauce, shoyu, tamari, miso, tofu, tempeh, natto, edamame, soy oil, soy curd and soy granules would all be avoided on a soy-free meal plan.

Yeast-free meal planning
A yeast-free meal plan is one of the most confusing to implement because of the controversies surrounding residual amounts of yeast in many commercially-prepared, processed foods. For example, small amounts of yeast many become present during the drying of tea, coffee, and spices.
The culturing of yeast is also used a starting point for commercial production of fermented products, including vinegars and ciders. Citric acid, a food additive, is also derived from yeast-culturing and yeast-fermenting processes.

Many cow’s milk-containing products also contain yeast, since yeasts thrive on milk sugar (lactose). This list of products typically includes sour cream, buttermilk, cream cheese, ricotta cheese, and powdered milk. Because yeasts also thrive on concentrated sugars, many canned and frozen fruit juices, and particular fruit juice concentrates, can contain yeast. Since the mid 1970s, several dozen research studies on this topic have appeared in food science journals.

Nutrient Excesses/Deficiencies
An Allergy Avoidance Diet, when carefully planned, provides sufficient amounts of all essential nutrients. Care must be taken with children and pregnant women to ensure adequate caloric and protein intake.

Benefits
As adverse food reactions are implicated as a contributing factor in the development of several medical conditions, identifying and eliminating the foods that cause reactions can be helpful for many people. Specifically, an allergy avoidance diet is beneficial for those suffering from irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, recurrent otitis media, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma.

Harmed
Individuals following an Allergy Avoidance Diet may experience uncomfortable symptoms caused by detoxification, including headache, muscle pains, or fatigue. These symptoms typically appear 2-3 days into the diet, and disappear within seven days.
When offending foods are reintroduced into the diet, individuals experience mild to severe reactions to food. It is advisable, to follow an Allergy Avoidance Diet, especially a strict Elimination/Challenge Diet, only under the advice and supervision of a health care practitioner.